DAMAG-INC Kali Combatives & Stickfighting
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Mon, 27 Nov 2006
Houston Stick Fighting Association's 1st quarterly gathering was a success!
The Houston Stick Fighting Association led by Johnathan Bolton held their 1st combative meet among FMA and other MA weapons-based players earlier today, Sunday the 26th beginning at around 10 am.

At the gathering, there were instructors from the various FMA schools throughout Houston with their students. Isias Ginson showed up and officiated most of the matches. Then there was Ed Kwan, an IMAF FMA guy from Clearlake who came to watch. Leo Quitalon with his LESKAS/Lighting Escrima crew from Sugarland was also there to play along. There was also some ARMA[Assoc. Rennaisance M A] players, and even some kendo players all in good fun under the sun of one beautiful day.

Bill Little and his training partner, Mike Wise drove in from Beaumont and picked me up this morning from Tomball right at one hour prior to the scheduled time to meet at the park. It turned out we were the first ones there. I'm gratefully happy to make some new friends and in re- acquainting with old friends that showed up to extend their support. Thanks to my old pal, Joaquin Rendon and (others with him) for handling the video camera during the matches.

This day marked the beginning of strong potential for all stick-based MA weapons practitioners beginning in the Greater Houston area alone to be unified under the sun to share support for each other in a form of "friendly exchanges" of skills with no egos, prizes or politics. All of us turned out to be great sports with each other. I know for sure I acknowledged all the hits I took from every sparring partner I traded blows with. In fact, I myself actually enjoyed getting hit just to encourage my sparring partner at the time to keep at it til I throw some back.

We also had matches with the smakstix/actionflex padded sticks with the helmet on. Those things were created perfectly if you did not want to be seriously hurt. We didn't even need any gloves to protect from the handshots because the sticks were very soft. I was letting myself get hit as hard and as often just to test if a person can get hurt by one of those things during a match with the smakstix with Manong Joe Galleon... and man, he loved to bang for a man over 60 years of age!

There was also dagger duel simulation & espada y daga matches with catchers chest guards on, and then we went to the live stick where we wore the WEKAF protective vest. I personally do not really care much for the WEKAF vests but I put it on anyway and still had a great time. I got to have fun letting myself get hit hard to see if their heavy shots would actually penetrate through the armor, while holding the stick in my weaker hand[I'm a lefty] but we sparred with lighter, thinner rattan sticks though. The last thing we needed that day was for anyone to get seriously injured. I did get to be the only one wearing my fencing mask as everyone else wore the Doce Pares, Canete cage helmets.

My last match was against a long wooden sword made of some really really hard wood versus my double sticks. During the beginning of the match, I went ahead and took some of those hits since I was up to feeling a little pain that day, and since it was a heavy weapon, those were some really heavy hits! I even took a thrust from the tip of the wooden sword on my lower bicep and it did not take much to feel that. I recieved a slight knot from that too. I just knew I hit home when I got inside of the long range of the sword and opened up my own little flurry of shots on the armor and mask.
Either way, in the end my new sword fighting friend Jay, expressed a strong desire to learn FMA. I assured him it will boost his sword game to even greater heights. I do wish him well with it and look forward to seeing his game get better at the next meet.

Thanks most of all to Johnathan Bolton once again for organizing a successful gathering along with Manong Joe Galleon. Thanks also to Bill Little for picking me up.

I made many new friends and even stronger re-acquaintances that day and I'm very happy.

Can you dig it?


Posted 01:06 
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Thu, 26 Oct 2006
Filipino Martial Arts Glossary of terms

Abang.....to wait defensively
Abanico......fan; also spelled "abaniko"
Abanico sa Itaas.....upper flywheel
Abecedario....."ABC's"; the basics
Abierta.....open position
Agaw.....to grab, seize, disarm or take away
Agaw-Sandata.....disarming & retrieval of the weapon
Aldabis.....diagonal cut, strike or uppercut
Alpabeto.....alphabet; the basics
Antas.....level or degree
Antaw.....long range
Araw.....sun or day
Arnis.....harness; northern philippine martial art
Arnisador.....stick fighter
Arnis de Mano....."Armor of the Hand"; system
Atras.....retreat or backward


Babag.....worry; trouble
Bago.....new or before
Bagong-Pasok.....entry level student
Bagsak.....to drop; overhead strike with down weighing
Bahi.....a Philipine hardwood used for sticks
Baitang.....level or stages
Bakbakan.....a rumble or free-for-all fight
Baligtad.....reverse or inside out
Balik.....return or retreat
Balisong....."butterfly knife"
Banatan.....full-contact fighting
Bansay-bansay.....training or drills
Bantay.....guard or watch
Bantay-Kamay.....support or "alive" hand
Bara-bara.....wild or formless technique
Bartikal.....vertical cut/strike
Bati-Bati.....using the butt of the stick
Batikan.....noteworthy; certified expert
Baywang.....the hip
Bigay.....to give
Bigay-bali.....lock release technique
Binahagi.....cut into parts
Binali.....break or reverse
Bisig.....the arm
Bothan.....Martial Arts school
Braso.....the arm
Buah.....combination of footwork and form; application of technique
Buhat.....from or lift
Buhat Araw.....an overhead strike
Bukas.....open position
Buklis.....upward figure 8
Bulusok.....powerful overhead or diagonal strike
Buno.....takedown or throws
Bunot.....to draw a sword; to pluck out
Bunot Kaluban.....an upward slash followed by a downward slash; a drawing and slashing technique


Caballero....techniques from Grandmaster Caballero
Carera.....cycling movement or spin
Cadena de Mano.....chain of hands
Centro Baston.....holding the stick in the middle
Cerrada.....close; closed fighting position
Cinco Teros....."5 strikes"
Contrada.....opposite or counter
Corto.....close range
Cruzada.....cross-block and strike
Crossada.....to cross


Daga.....dagger or short stick
Dakop....to catch
Dakot.....to scoop
Dalawampu't Isa.....twenty-one
Damdam.....feel or sensitivity
Damdam-Diwa.....sensitivity; being aware
de Cadena....."the chain"
de Cuerdas....."to chord"; system
Depensa.....defense; person taking defensive role in training
Dib-dib.....the chest
Diin.....to put pressure on
Dikitan.....very close or close quarters
Doble Baston.....double stick training
Doblete.....double or repeat
Doce Pares....."12 pairs or 12 strikes"; system
Dos Labahas.....two blades
Dos Manos.....two hands
Dos Manos Largos.....two hands with long stick Dukop.....to catch
Dukot.....to snatch or seize unexpectedly
Dukot.....to reach out
Dulo.....the tip of the stick
Dumog.....filipino grappling art
Dungab.....to strike with the fist
Dungab....."heaven" or "hammer" grip


Elastico....."rubber band art"; system
Enganyo.....fake or feint
Equis....."X" or "X" shaped strike
Eskrima....."skirmish"; filipino martial art
Eskrimador.....stick fighter
Espada.....sword or long stick
Espada y Daga.....sword & dagger or long & short stick


No terms found.


Gantihan.....exchange of blows
Garote.....stick; usually flat to simulate a blade
Garote'ng.....itak flat stick
Gunting....."scissors" or passing block with a limb destruction


Habang.....while; in the meantime
Hagad-Hubad.....strikes & counters
Hagis.....to throw; a throwing technique
Hagibis......whirlwind; throwing & grappling techniques
Hakbang.....to step; footwork
Hakbang-Paiwas.....full side step/step to avoid strike
Halo-Halo.....combination; free flow sparring
Hanay.....row or line
Handa....."Get ready !"
Hapos.....strike or slash
Hapsanay.....free sparring
Hatak.....to pull
Hataw.....a full power strike
Hawak.....to hold
Hawak-Gitna.....holding the stick in the middle
Hawak-Pakal.....reverse or ice-pick grip
Hawak-Punyo.....regular hold on weapon with punyo
Hawak-Sagad.....regular grip with no punyo
Hawak-Saksak.....regular or hammer grip
Hawak-Sandata.....methods of holding a weapon
Hawak-Susi.....reverse grip; holding at tip of stick
Higot.....to tie
Hindi.....no or negative
Hintay.....wait or pause
Hiwa.....to slash or cut
Hubad.....to untie or undress; name of a flow drill
Hulagpos.....to escape from capture or restraint


Ibaba.....down or below
Ibabaw.....above or on-top
Ikot.....turn or about-face
Ikot-Hantaw.....spinning strike
Ilag.....to evade
Ilalim.....under or underneath
Ilustrisimo.....techniques from Grandmaster Anotio Ilustrisimo
Ipit.....to lock, trap or jam
Ipit-Hagis.....a sacrifice throwing technique
Itaas.....above, upper or to the front
Itak.....long sword or bolo
Isa-pa.....once more; again; one more time
Iwas.....to avoid, dodge or duck


Juego Todo.....anything goes or free-for-all fight


Kaayusan.....order or organization
Kabakas.....partner or assistant
Kadena.....chain or series of movements
Kadyot.....a shallow, snap thrust
Kalas.....disengage, release or disarm
Kalas-Sandata.....disarming technique
Kalasag.....to shield
Kali.....a southern Philippine martial art
Kalis.....oldest of the Philippino style kris
swords; wavey back half, straight front half
Kaliwa.....left side
Kamagoong.....Philipine iron wood
Kamay.....the hand
Kamayan.....empty-hand training
Kamot.....to punch; hand
Kanan.....right side
Kasa.....to cock or chamber; to accept a challenge
Katawan.....body or torso
Katipunan.....organization, association or brotherhood
Kenkoy.....derogatory term used for unrealistic or impractical styles of fighting
Kilat....."Lightning Blow"
Kris.....serpentine blade knife or sword
Kunsi.....grappling techniques
Kuntao....."fist way"; system


Laban.....to fight
Laban-Laro.....combat drills or "play fights"
Labanang.....to fight
Labanang-Dikitan.....close quarters combat
Labanang-Malapitan.....medium range combat
Labanang-Malayuan.....long range combat
Laban-Sanay.....combat-skills training
Labas.....the outside
Labing-Isa.....eleven Labo-labo.....anything-goes fight
La Contra.....to meet a strike
Lakan.....an instructor rank equivalent to black belt
Lansi.....to confuse or misdirect
Lansing-Tadyak.....spinning thrust kick
Lansing-Sikad.....spinning snap kick
Largo Mano.....long range
Laro.....to play
Laro-laro.....give and take drills or training
Larong.....to play
La Seguida.....to follow a strike
Laslas.....to cut to shreds
Lastiko.....a style of arnis that emphasizes bobbing & weaving toavoid strikes
Lengua de Fuego.....a fast series of thrust & slash techniques
Lihis.....to the side or side-step
Liyad.....to lean away
Lock & Block.....training drill from Serrada Eskrima
Loob.....the inside
Lubud.....to blend
Lusob.....attack or partner taking offensive role in the training
Lutangto.....float; the unique forward and backward footwork of the Ilustrisimo system


Mabilis.....fast or speedy
Magaling.....highly skilled
Mag-Olisi.....one who practices stick- fighting
Magulang.....parents; shrewd or sly
Mahina.....weak or of poor skills
Maharlika.....noble or nobility
Malakas.....strong, powerful or influential
Malapitan.....near or close
Malayuan.....far or distant
Mano y Mano.....hand to hand
Marami.....many or numerous
Maraming Salamat Po....."Many thanks"
Masipag.....earnest or hard working
Masugid.....dedicated or loyal
Matibay.....strong, durable or lasting
Matira.....to be left or to be the last
Matira Matibay.....Survival of the Fittest
Matulis.....sharply pointed; a style of bolo
May-Alam.....to posses the seeds of knowledge
Medio.....medium range
Meteorica.....meteoric strike from Grandmaster Caballero
Mukha.....the face
Muli.....again or one more time


Nakaw.....to steal


Olisi-hay.....sparring with sticks
Opo.....respectful form of saying "yes"
Oracion.....a prayer for protection
Ordabis.....backhand strike


Paayon.....going with the force
Paawas.....to parry
Pag-Galang.....salutation or show of respect
Pagsilang.....birth or sunrise
Pagsisisi.....atonement or repentance
Pahimsug.....exercises or calisthenics
Pahisa.....a slashing motion
Paikot.....circular strike
Paiwas.....to avoid
Pakal....."ice pick" grip
Palad.....palm of the hand
Palakas-Pulso.....wrist-strengthening exercises
Palis.....sweep or sweeping parry
Palis-Patid.....a sweeping throw
Palisut.....to scoop
Palisut-sut.....skipping strike
Palit.....change or exchange
Palit-Kamay.....change or exchange grip
Palo.....to strike
Paluan.....exchange of strikes
Palusut.....to pass through; technique of evading and passing through
Panabas.....ax style weapon
Pananandata.....study of the weapons of the Philippines
Panastas.....to slash
Panata.....a devotion
Pangamot.....empty-hand defense
Pangandam.....on-guard or ready position
Pang-Ikyas evasion or dodge
Pang-Olisi.....stick fighting
Pang-Ubot.....hold or grip
Panibago.....new or a revival
Panipis.....to skim or cut thinly
Panukad.....fighting stance
Pasada de Contra.....pass and hit
Pasok.....to enter, inside or on target
Pasungkit.....to thrust upward
Patalim.....dagger or blade weapon
Patalon.....jumping or multi-level strikes
Patibong.....to trap
Patid.....to trip
Patusok.....in a thrusting motion
Pa-upo.....half side step/sitting down
Pauyon.....go-with-the force technique
Payong sa Itaas.....upper umbrella block
Pekiti.....close range
Piga.....to squeeze or wring
Piglas.....to struggle or resist
Pikon.....one who is easily upset
Piktos.....a snap strike
Pilay.....sprain or dislocation; lame or crippled at the legs
Pinahandog.....diagonal downward strike
Pinatag.....horizontal strike
Pinasaka.....diagonal upward strike
Pinasaka Tuhod.....rising knee strike
Pinatindog.....vertical downward strike
Pingga.....a long staff fighting system
Pinid.....closed position
Pintok.....a wrist snap strike
Pinuti.....long Visayan sword
Planchada.....a horizontal strike
Plansada.....horizontal cut/strike
Po.....a suffix denoting respect
Prakcion.....to react faster than the opponent
Pukpok.....to hammer or pummel
Pulso.....pulse or wrist
Puluhan.....handle or butt
Punong Guro.....head teacher & founder of system
Punyo.....butt of stick or any weapon


No terms found.


Redonda.....continuous double stick technique
Redondo.....circular power strike
Retirada.....to retreat
Rompida.....an upward and downward slash
Ronda.....circular movement of the hands or weapon
Ropillon.....a double stick technique or movement


Sa.....to or of
Sabayan.....Simultaneous; to attack or counter at the same time
Sablay.....Incomplete or imperfect; a low right to left horizontal.....blow
Saboy.....to throw or scatter; an upward right to left diagonal strike
Sadang.....reverse position
Sagasa.....to charge or to overrun
Sakay.....to ride or go with the force
Sakay-Salag.....eskrima sticky hands; to follow the motion of the blocked/ checked weapon or attack
Saksak.....to thrust
Sasak Hatak.....a technique using fast withdrawal and twisting of the weapon to inflict a cut on the opponents checking or blocking hand
Salag.....block or parry
Salagba.....downward block
Salagbas.....outside dodging and parrying
Salag-Bisig.....forearm block
Salagsok.....inside dodging and parrying
Salagtas.....upward block
Salakay.....to charge or attack
Salamat.....to thank
Salamin.....mirror or reaction drill
Salisi.....opposing or opposite direction
Salok.....an upward strike with the edge or point
Saltik.....a snap strike
Salubong.....to meet head-on
Sama.....to join or go with
Sambut.....combination of footwork & form application of technique
Sanay.....training or exposure
Sangga.....to block
Saplet.....quick disarm
Sawali.....interwoven slats of wood use for walls
Serrada.....close quarters or "closing"
Sibog.....retreat or backward
Sikad.....side kick
Sikad-Gilid.....side snap kick
Sikad-Hataw.....snap roundhouse kick
Sikad-Sungkite.....snap hook kick
Sikad-Tusok.....front snap kick
Sikaran.....a Philippine martial art emphasizing kicking skills
Siklod.....to kiss the hand of an elder; a wrist lock
Siklod Bangga.....a wrist lock that uses the shoulder as a leverage point
Sikmura.....solar plexus
Siko.....the elbow
Sikot.....push kick
Sikwat.....to pry; an upward strike with the punyo
Sikwat-Siko.....a come-along lock with the elbow
as the primary lock or center of pressure
Silat.....to outmaneuver or overpower; an Indonesian martial art
Silak.....open-hand system used against a blade (Sayoc Kali)
Sinawalli.....to weave; a continuous double stick technique
Sinigurato.....make doubly sure; a follow-up trapping or jamming technique (Lameco Eskrima)
Sipa.....to kick; also a game
Sipalit.....a training drill for alternating kicks
Sipang-Hataw.....roundhouse kick
Sogo.....finger-tip thrust
Songab.....finger jab
Songkiti.....a hooking movement used to parry or thrust
Suklian.....an exchange of strikes
Suko.....to surrender or give-up
Sulod.....to enter
Sulong.....to go forward or go ahead
Suliwa.....pass or deflect
Sumbrada.....upper umbrella block; name of a flow drill
Sumpa.....a vow or oath
Sungkite.....a technique that emphasizes thrusts
Sundot.....a jab or quick thrust
Suntok.....to punch
Suplete.....quick disarm
Suyop.....a go with the force technique


Tabas Talahib.....a horizontal strike
Tadtad.....full of or multiples of
Tadyak.....thrust kick
Tadyak-Gilid.....side thrust kick
Tadyak-Sakong.....back thrust kick
Tadyak-Tusok.....front thrust kick
Taga.....to strike or cut
Tagang Alanganin.....an outwards horizontal strike aimed at the upper torso region
Tagang Buhat Araw.....an overhead strike aimed at the top of the head
Tagang Pasumala.....primarily a parry, a sweeping upward diagonal strike used to deflect a weapon
Tagang San Miguel.....a diagonal downward and inward strike aimed at the upper torso
Tagapagsanay.....trainer or assistant instructor
Tagapagturo.....senior assistant instructor
Talang Bartikal.....vertical block
Talas.....sharp or to sharpen
Talas Damdam.....sensitivity training
Tapa.....to step on the foot
Tapi.....to parry or deflect
Tapik.....to nudge, defelct or parry
Tapi-on.....to block, parry, defelct or check
Tapi-Tapi.....checking; a series of parries & blocks
Tapos.....finished or the end
Tatlumpu't Isa.....thirty one
Taub.....facing downward
Teka.....wait, halt or pause
Tigil.....stop or cease
Tigpas.....a horizontal strike directed at the knees
Tihaya.....facing upward
Tiniklink.....footwork drill
Tisod.....to stumble
Totsada.....to thrust
Totsar.....to thrust
Trancada.....to lock or locks
Tuhod.....the knee
Tulisan.....the knife-fighting art of Kali Illustrisimo
Tunga-tunga.....medium range
Tuo.....to the right
Tusok.....to thrust
Tuyok.....cycling movement or to spin


Ulo.....the head


No terms found.


Wala.....to the left; nothing; lost
Walis.....to sweep
Warwok.....a weapon hand capture that rebounds the weapon into the attackers body
Witik.....wrist snap strike


No terms found.


Yabag.....the sound of footsteps
Yakap.....hug, hold, embrace or clinch
Yantoc.....rattan stick
Yuko.....to duck or bow


No terms found.

Posted 05:02 
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Tue, 24 Oct 2006
Written and published texts of the History and origins of the Filipino Martial Arts
Background Of the Filipino Martial Arts The Fighting arts of the Philippines are deeply rooted in the history and culture of the Filipino people. They are the products of a highly developed civilization which flourished long before the arrival of the West upon its shores, and of centuries of warfare against a variety of oppressors. Both these factors are responsible for the highly technical and pragmatic outlook of the Filipino martial arts.

The Maharlikas was the original name of the Philippines before the coming of the Portuguese and Spanish in the 15th and 16th centuries. The general consensus among scholars is that the first settlers in the Philippines were the Negritos of prehistory. It is theorized that these small dark-skinned people traveled by land from Central Asia, perhaps via an ancient land bridge. They brought with them the short bow and later developed the long bow.

This process was followed by a series of Malay migrations from what is today Southeast Asia and the Indonesian Archipelago. The first of these began before the birth of Christ. These taller seafaring people brought with them the first bladed weapons.

In the 5th and 6th centuries in Indonesia and Malaysia a huge empire was formed due to the migration of the Hindu tribes of India to Sumatra and Java. The Srividjayan Empire, as it came to be known, eventually spread as far as the Philippines.

Their martial arts skills, advanced weaponry, and superior organization made it possible for them to conquer the earlier settlers. Some fled to distant islands, others stayed and the two cultures merged. The Srividjayans were the ancestors of the Tagalogs, Ilocanos, Pampangos, Visayans, and Bicolanos. The area of the Central Philippines where these people first landed is today known as the Visayan region. It is thought by many Filipinos that the island of Panay, the most western part of the Visayan Islands, was the birthplace of Kali – as the Filipino martial arts were known at that time. The Srividjayans brought the influence of Hindu and Indonesian religion, philosophy, arts, and combative forms to the Philippines. They introduced laws (the famous Code of Kalantaw), a calendar, written alphabet (Sanskrit), new religion, and a system of weights and measures. This new culture developed a social unit called the barangay each independently headed by a Datu (leader or chief). These were the first to leave a written historical record.

The next major incursion of foreign ideas and culture occurred in the 12th and 13th centuries. The Majapahit Empire of Indonesia, which eclipsed the Srividjayan Empire spread throughout Southeast Asia and into the Philippines. At its height the Empire included areas that are today Burma, Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, Cambodia, the Philippines and Madagascar. Deeply influenced by Moslem culture, the Majapahit brought Islam to the Philippines where it settled most heavily in the South. Today the Southern region of Mindanao remains a Moslem stronghold, fiercely independent and at war with the governing Christian majority. By the 12th century thousands Chinese had migrated to the Philippines following the Manchurian invasion of China. They brought with them the martial arts of the Tang Dynasty, which came to be known as Kuntao throughout Southeast Asia. The Chinese and their arts were assimilated into the Island culture.

These diverse influences led to a highly developed civilization, which existed before the 6th century until incursions from the West starting in the 16th century. The Filipino’s during this period were thought to be followers of the God of Violence – Kali. The head of the family unit was called the Kaliman. Each Kaliman had a rank of status represented in his blade known as the Kalis. There are at least 25 different types of blades in the Philippines, although most estimates put the figure much higher. Many of these bear signs of Hindu, Indonesian, and Moslem influence. Blade designs differed from region to region and sometimes from village to village. The type and size of the blade was a measure of the respect to be accorded the individual Kaliman as well as an indicator of his place of origin. The more well known types of blade are the kampilan, the kris, the lahot, utak, gunong, barong, and balasiong. The leader of the barangay or of the region was said have worn the shortest Kalis – the short length being a symbol of his authority and fighting prowess. This blade is known even today as the danganan.
Based upon his fighting prowess and other skills the Kaliman was awarded a title of rank. In the Visayan region the Datu headed the barangay and above him was the Sultan who had authority over the entire region. At one point it is thought that there were three Sultanates – North in Luzon region; Central in the Visayas; South in Mindanao. It was, however the Tuhon or master teacher who was often considered the most important person in a particular region. The Tuhon represented the repository of knowledge and culture of a given area. The bothoan or central communal school was headed by the Tuhon. It was his responsibility to pass on the culture of the Filipino civilization. These teachings grouped under the name Kali, included philosophy, religion, morality, healing, combative arts and the written word. Long before Spanish rule, the Filipino’s had developed their own system of medicine, astronomy, engineering, as well as written language and history. Most of these writings were destroyed during the Spanish conquest. Written and oral languages differed according to region so that today there are over 300 major dialects in addition to Tagalog, the national language.

The history, philosophy, and religious aspects of kali, as an object of worship and kali, the fighting arts were so closely interwoven that they must be considered as a single entity. Although Kali was the God of Violence and death, the Filipinos considered it a peaceful god. The Kaliman, spiritually through his philosophy and physically through his training in the combative arts of Kali confronted death as a part of daily life. By this constant awareness of the presence of death and his resolution to confront it, the Kaliman is liberated from the weight of his fear of death. In this confrontation with the darker side of life the Kaliman comes to see things as they really are, a view uncluttered by futile dreams, hopes and false expectations. Further he learned not to base his actions on the fear of death, old age or sickness but to revel in the moment. Only in the “now” can he see things clearly and without judgment or bias.

Indeed, the ancient laws of Kali, known as the code of Kalantiaw, contained 18 laws – the first was “Thou shall not kill”. In all its phases – philosophy, healing, the sciences, combat, the written word, etc. – Kali was an art for the preservation of life. The life of the individual, his family, village, and culture. The importance of Kali is emphasized in the words basic to the Filipino and his view of the world. Kaligayahan or happiness and Kalayon (freedom) both contain the spirit of the Kali within them. They are words still used today in parts of the Philippines.
The concept of Kali as an art which preserves life and freedom and which cultivates mutual respect among men can be most vividly seen in the unconquerable spirit of Muslims (Moros) of the Southern Philippines. Dan Inosanto relates that the Muslims warriors opposed the Spanish conquests with their religion, their courage, and their unparalleled fighting ability. Attempt by the Spanish to capture Muslim leaders as a lever to make their people submit, as they had done with Montezuma in Mexico, ended in failure. The Filipino leader held his position by dint of his fighting knowledge his fighting prowess. He was expected to die for his people in order to preserve their freedom. The Southern Philippines remained exempt from tribute throughout the Spanish occupation. With American intervention and occupation at turn of the century the Moros continued their resistance to foreign government and religion even when the rest of the country submitted. The .45 caliber automatic was issued to American servicemen because their .38s did not have sufficient stopping power to halt the charge of these ferocious warriors. This battle continues even today between the Moros of Mindanao and the incumbent government.

Knowledge of the Filipino martial arts first appeared in the 16th century with arrival in the Philippines of the Portuguese explore Ferdinand Magellan. Magellan attempted to subdue the natives and convert them to Christianity but he was resisted by Lapulapu a leader of the local people.Lapulapu’s men were well trained in native fighting arts due to preparations for the battle over a territorial dispute between Lapulapu and Humabon, the chief of the neighboring tribe. The tribes of Lapulapu and Humabon were part of the Sri Visayan Empire in the earlier centuries of Filipino history. The fighting arts of both Lapulapu and Humabon were originally brought to the Visayan Islands by their ancestors.

The early styles of Kali advocated by lapulapu and Humabon were also known as pangamut. They consisted of only eight strokes – six slashes, two each to the head, chest, and kidney area, and two thrusts – one to the head and one to the chest. According to Eulogio Canete of the Doce Pares Club, the differences were more in application than in theory. Lapulapu was reputed to be extraordinarily powerful. His favorite weapon was a huge kampilan (double – pointed blade). It is said that he could throw a short stick with such force as to stick it fast in a coconut tree. The kali of Humabon was softer and more evasive than Lapulapus’ hard, powerful techniques. Despite the preparation of the two chiefs, a battle never took place between their tribes. Instead on April 27, 1521 the Portuguese were defeated in the battle of Mactan. Lapulapu and his men met swords and musket fire with blades, spears, and sharpened sticks. Magellan himself died in the battle.

The Filipino martial arts under went a radical change during the 18th and 19th centuries. The Spanish conquistador’s had learned to respect Filipino weaponry and fighting skills in the intervening years. Under their rule the display or carrying of blades and practice of Kali were prohibited. The Filipinos turned to the use of the bahi (hardwood) or oway (rattan) stick. Practice with the blade still continued in secret or in moro-moro plays. These indigenous stage plays had Christians engaged in sham battles with Moros. Kali, in a modified form, and Filipino dances became an important part of the show. It was through the moro-moro plays that arnis survived the Spanish conquest and later the American occupation.

With Spanish rule the native fighting arts adopted new terminology and new methods. Previously the art had been one in which the blade was the primary weapon. Under the Spanish the emphasis of the art turned to the use of the stick. Before the Spanish Kali was known as pananandata to the Tagalogs, Kalirongan to the Pangasinenses, among the Ilocanos as didya or kabaraon, to Visayans as kaliradman or pagaradman. The Pampaguenos called it sinawali and the Ibanag pagkalikali. After Spanish occupation the art had became known as arnis de mano derived from the Spanish word “arnes” meaning trappings or defensive armor. In the Tagalog province it became estocada, and in other areas estogue, fraile, armas de mano, or simply arnis. Among the Visayans it changed to egrima, escrima, or eskrima from the Spanish fro “to fence” or “skirmish”. The stick became known as the baston, garote or tabak and the blades are often grouped under the term bolo. Espada y daga was what Spanish called the blade and dagger, and sinawali or double baston refer to the use of two sticks. Today the native fighting arts of the Philippines are grouped under the name arnis. The National Arnis Association of the Philippines (Naraphil), a government supported organization, is attempting to unify all of the native fighting arts of the Philippines under one body, although many styles are lost or remain secret handed down only within the family or from father to son.
Source: http://www.customfighting.com/coed.html

History and Development of Filipino Martial Arts
Pre-Spanish Conquest
The Fighting arts of the Philippines are deeply rooted in the history and culture of the Filipino people before the arrival of the Spanish.[1]
The Philippines are located in a very central position within Southeast Asia, acting as the central stepping of the region. Even in prehistoric time, earliest man would have crossed though the Philippines to reach Indonesia, Malaysia, and Australia. Millennia of culture recorded waves of migration to the Philippines from India, Malaysia, Indonesia and China. Due to huge base of knowledge that was acquired, the Filipino culture became quite advanced, developing their own system of medicine, astronomy, engineering, written language and history.
In 200 B.C the Malays migrated to the Philippines, bringing a wavy bladed knife from the island of Java.[2] The ‘Kalis’ or ‘Kris’ is the first foreign weapon to be incorporated into today’s Filipino martial arts.[3]
In 78 AD, the Indian Prince Aji Caka extended the Hindi Empire into Indonesia.[4] A mass migration of Hindu Indians later followed in 400AD.[5] The Hindu martial arts, weaponry, and superior organization made it possible for them to conquer the earlier peoples of Southeast Asia.
Two major waves of Indo-Malay culture were spread to the Philippines.[6] Around 600AD, the Hindu Sri-Vijaya Empire expanded into whole Philippine region.[7] Later in 1331 AD, the Moslem Majapahit Empire expanded into the Southern Philippines.[8]
The Srividjayans are the ancestors of modern central Filipinos, including the Tagalogs, Ilocanos, Pampangos, Visayans, and Bicolanos. The Srividjayans brought the influence of the Hindi and Indonesian religions, philosophy, arts, combat, new laws (the famous Code of Kalantaw), the Hindi calendar, a written alphabet (Sanskrit), and a new system of weights and measures.[9] The Majapahit Empire settled in the Southern Philippines, bringing with them Islam.
Hinduism introduced the goddess Kali. Kali is often depicted in Indian art as a black or dark blue woman with four arms, holding a curved sword and the head of a slain daemon. She has a multifaceted character, known for her violence, peace, compassion, chaos, and wisdom. These contradicting traits mirror the contradicting traits of nature, and are seen as representing the ultimate reality of life.

[11] Followers of Kali seek to see things as they really are, uncluttered by futile dreams, hopes and false expectations. As a result, they learn to seize the moment, and avoid making decisions on the fear of death, old age or sickness.

[12] From the 600AD to 1500AD the Filipinos were followers of Kali. The language and culture became saturated with reference to their goddess. The words for happiness (‘kaligayahan’), freedom (‘kalayon’), and the family/tribe (‘kaliman’) all derived from the Kali faith.

[13] Each family or ‘kaliman’ also had its own uniquely shaped sword known as a ‘kalis’.

[15] Ferdinand Magellan
[16] In 1518, Ferdinand Magellan convinced King Charles I of Spain that the Moluccas, then known as the spice island, could be reached by sailing west instead of east. This would allow Spain to claim Moluccas as part of the Spanish realm agreed upon in the Treaty of Torsedillas.

[17] The king agreed and on 20 September 1519, the expedition sailed southward across the Atlantic Ocean. After reaching the Marianas, Magellan continued his voyage and arrived in the Philippine Archipelago on 17 March 1521.

[18] Magellan soon befriended the island chief Rajah Kolambu, and with Kolambu’s help Magellan sailed northeast to Cebu. The relationship between Magellan and Cebu’s leader Rajah Humabon flourished. In April 1521, Magellan succeeded in baptizing Rajah Humabon, his wife and five hundred villagers.

[20] With the friendship and conversion of Rajah Humabon, Magellan and his army were able to gain control over all the Filipino islands except one.
On Mactan, a small island east of Cebu, Rajah Lapu-Lapu stood defiant. Magellan was confident that his men, with steel armor and muskets, would easily defeat Lapu-Lapu. On the other hand, Lapu- Lapu had only native spears (Kampilan), broadswords (Kalis), and daggers (Daga).

[21] However, Lapu-Lapu’s men were well trained in native fighting arts that were originally brought by Sri-Vijaya Empire.

[22] Lapu-Lapu was also reputed to be extraordinarily powerful. It is said that he could throw a short stick with enough force to pierce a coconut tree.
On 27 of April 1521, [25] Magellin and his men were defeated in the battle of Mactan.[26] Ferdinand Magellan himself, was slain by the Raja Lapu-Lapu in a fierce hand-to-hand fight.[27] Eyewitness historian Antonio Pigafetta recorded that Magellan after a blow to the leg and neck with a Kampilan.

[28] One of Magellan’s remaining commanders, Juan Sebastian del Cano, was left to complete the remaining journey back to Spain.

[29] There are some historians who suggest that the battle of Mactan was probably exaggerated. Magellan’s ‘army’ was more likely to have consisted of 49 men with mainly pikes, swords, halberds, some armor, and only a few firearms. Lapu-Lapu’s men would have outnumbered Magellan’s by more than twenty to one, and rained hundreds of arrows and spears upon the Spaniards.

[30] Spanish Occupation of the Philippines
Eventually the Filipino islands were conquered. In 1542, the islands were renamed from Maharlikas [31] to Las Philippinas in honor of Prince Philip, later King Philip of Spain (Philip II, 1556-1598).[32]
In an effort to completely colonize the natives, Spaniards destroyed and suppressed most aspects of Filipino culture. This resulted in the loss of the written Filipino language, religion, science, and art.[33] Most of the population was converted to Roman Catholicism[34] and forced to adopt Spanish family names.[35]
In 1871, the Spaniards banned all forms of martial arts and weapons.[36] The Filipinos found a way to openly practice martial arts with swords, by incorporating it with folkdances known as ‘moro-moro’s’.[37]

The Binasuan, for example is a dance which shows the joint locking techniques.[38] However, Filipino martial arts could only survive by going underground. The banned swords (‘kalis’) were also replaced by the rattan stick (‘baston’) replaced the banned sword.

Spanish rule lasted until 1898 when Spain was defeated in the Spanish-American war.[41] The Philippines were liberated, but were greatly influenced by American culture, and English became the second language. During World War II the Philippines were occupied by the Japanese. Martial arts were banned and again went underground.[42]

The terms Kali, Escrima and Arnis all refer to the same martial art.[43] However, the source and meaning of these terms is highly contentious.
‘Kali’ and ‘Eskrima’ are foreign (foreign influenced) terms, and Arnis is the correct Filipino (Tagalog) term for this martial art.[44] The word ‘Escrima’ is derived from the Renaissance Spanish terms for ‘fencing’ or ‘skirmish’ (scherma, scrimia, escrime, esgrima).[45] The Visayan people of the central islands quickly adopted the Spanish terminology, [46] either because of the linguistic influence of Spanish, the incorporation of the Spanish fencing into Filipino martial arts, [47] or both.
The word Kali is the name of the Filipino goddess of war that was adopted from ancient Hindi empires which had expanded into Southeast Asia. [48] These empires included the kingdom of the Indian Prince Aji Caka in 78AD, [49] and the Majapahit Empire of 1331AD.[50]

The word Kali is a composite of the Filipino words KAmut (hand) and LIhok (movement).[51] The word Kali, sometimes written as Kahli, is a type of stick in the Filipino dialect of Visayan.[52]
The word Kali is derived from the Tagalog dialect term Kalis, meaning a large bladed weapon. This was shortened to Kali to refer to all bladed weapons.
[53] The terms Kali, Escrima and Arnis are all native Filipino words, that reflect different dialects. [54] Arnis comes from the northern islands dialect of Tagalog (Luzon). Eskrima comes from the central islands (Visayas) dialect of Visayan. Kali comes from the southern islands (Mindanao) dialect of Cebuano.
The term Kali is seldom used in the Philippines and in most cases is an unknown word. The terms Escrima and Arnis are the names primarily used in the Philippines today.[55]

Prior to Spanish conquest, Kali was known as ‘Pananandata’ in the Tagalog dialect, ‘Kalirongan’ in the Pangasinan dialect, ‘Didya’ or ‘Kabaraon’ in the Ilocano dialect, ‘Kaliradman’ or ‘Pagaradman’ in the Visayan dialect, ‘Sinawali’ in the Pampaguenos dialect, and ‘Pagkalikali’ in the Ibanag dialect.

[56] The term Kali, only refers to the martial art that was first developed on the Island of Panay in the Visayan Islands.[57]
The word Arnis is derived from the Spanish word ‘arnes’, meaning ‘trappings’ or ‘defensive armor’. Following the Spanish conquest, the Spaniards referred to Filipino martial arts as ‘arnis de mano’ or ‘defence of man’.[58] The term Arnis is used to collectively refer to all native Filipino martial arts. This is apparently the official stance of The National Arnis Association of the Philippines.[59]

http://www.shaolinchowka.com/shaolin-kung-fu- history/index.html Other interesting links:
Cebu Eskrima Society
Musings on Martial Arts with Romy Macapagal
The Spaniards' first 50 years in the Philippines, 1565-1615

Posted 22:04 
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DAMAG-INC Kali Combatives Sept 24, 2006 Demo Highlights Video
Highlights of the FMA Demo at the 28th Annual Fayetteville International Folk Festival held in Fayetteville, North Carolina. DAMAG-INC Kali Combatives was there to represent this year's host country, The Philippine Islands. Special thanks to Liz Vasser and the Arts Council for inviting us and Jason Borean for filming.

DAMAG-INC Kali Combatives Sept 24, 2006 FMA Demo Highlights Clip

It was a perfectly warm and sunny day and a wonderful time was shared by thousands in attendance.

Posted 08:22 
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Sun, 15 Oct 2006
10 Reasons to Study Filipino Martial Arts
1) You will study an ancient art that only a handful of people on the planet really know about. The Filipino fighting arts are not very well known, and there are only a small amount of people who know this art, most of which are elite martial artists, police officers, and military personell.

2) It will instantly improve your skill in any other sport you play or martial art you currently practice. This is accomplished hrough the use of sophisticated training methods that require the utmost mobility, speed, timing, and coordination.

3) It will help you in school or in the workplace because it develops your sense of concentration, tactical thinking, and decision making all while teaching you how to keep a clear head. If you can deal with a 28 inch machete coming at you, then a physics test or that task your boss asked you to do is a piece of cake.

4) You will get in awesome shape. The footwork drills, wielding of weapons, and high-intensity sparring sessions will definitely make you break a sweat and tone your whole body.

5) You will experience the beautiful culture of the Filipino people. When you learn about how a particular people fight, then you learn about the people themselves, their history, and their traditions.

6) It's a great way to reduce stress. There's nothing quite like the wielding of weapons to get your frustrations out.

7) You will form bonds and make friendships with those you train with. Training groups are like a family, one where each member helps another bring out the best in themselves.

8) You will develop a sense of courage and a willingness to help protect those around you. The FMAs will give you the skills you need to protect those who cannot protect themselves. If trouble is ever to arise, you will have the knowledge of how to deal with that situation.

9) You will develop a strong sense of honor, focus, self-discipline, and self-awareness. These are essential attributes to any successful individual.

10) IT'S FUN! Training in FMA is a blast. Learn how to become a more powerful person while having a good time doing it. FMA has rhythm, grace, finesse...all of which help develop a better sense of self and a stronger, more courageous person

Source: Bayaniwarrior myspace blog

Posted 13:50 
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